کوکیی بیضوں اور ہوا کے معیار کی پیش گوئی

Good air quality is important for everyone’s health. However, those with lung conditions, such as aspergillosis and asthma, may be more vulnerable to the effects of poor air than others. Airborne pollutants and allergens are found both indoors and outdoors, and can irritate our lungs and exacerbate existing conditions. It can be useful, therefore, to know when and where these irritants are at their most harmful concentrations ⁠— this can allow us to understand, avoid and prevent any harmful air conditions that may be affecting our health. Here we have compiled a selection of air quality forecasts and information:

Fungal Spores

Fungal spores are microscopic particles responsible for the reproduction of fungi. We inhale huge numbers of these particles in each breath ⁠— for most people, this doesn’t affect their health. However, some individuals, including aspergillosis patients, are more susceptible to allergic reactions and infections from mould spores. It can therefore be useful to know when mould spores are at their highest concentrations, in order to reduce exposure to them. We are currently entering peak spore season for most moulds (June – August). Peak spore season coincides with hayfever season, and allergies to pollen and spores carry similar symptoms (runny nose, sore eyes, rashes). Therefore, it is often difficult to distinguish between these conditions, and medical tests may be necessary.

The National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit at the University of Worcester has produced a number of helpful calendars, showing the monthly spore count averages over a period of 5 years. They have also compiled useful information on the allergenicity of each spore type and where each mould prefers to grow. This allows those at risk to avoid areas where the spore concentration is potentially very high. The information for Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. is copied below:


The year starts with a high risk for these types with a total monthly average of 1,333 (per m3) spores in January and 1,215 in February. Spores continue to be airborne during Spring and early Summer but possibly below the levels needed to trigger symptoms. From mid-August the risk starts to rise again and people often report symptoms during warm, humid conditions in late August, September and October, with the peak reaching an average of 1,950 spores in October. Although the spore levels continue to be high during November and December, few people report symptoms, so it is likely that the types occurring during these months are less allergenic.

Habitat / Substrates:

microscopic view of fungal spores in small round particles

There are many species of Aspergillus اور Penicillium, which live on a wide range of substrates. The spores can be very prevalent during the peak periods, triggering a range of respiratory problems. The spores are particularly prevalent in wooded areas, compost heaps, rotting wood chips and bark mulch. Some species rot down pine needles, so conifer plantations should be avoided during Autumn. Penicillium chrysogenum is found widely in nature, occurs on indoor substrates and is the type used to produce the antibiotic penicillin. N.B. Houseplants can be sources of spores, particularly Aspergillus/Penicillium types.  If you’re keen to have houseplants, only have cacti, which require dry conditions, and ensure the soil surface is covered in grit.


Aspergillus اور Penicillium spores are present in the air throughout the year but the main peak periods are late August to October and January to February.


High for some types, particularly A. fumigatus اور P. chrysogenum. A. fumigatus is a major cause of aspergillosis (farmer’s lung).

For spore forecasts and information about other species:

For regular updates on pollen and spore counts:

Indoor air


Those self-isolating due to COVID-19 are spending almost all of their time at home. Therefore, indoor air quality is more of a concern than ever. Over the past ~50 years, our homes have become far more insulated. While this stops drafts and keeps our homes warmer, it also means than our living spaces are generally damper and less ventilated. This can provide ideal conditions for mould to grow and thrive. There are a number of small things that we can do to prevent mould and damp: these include drying laundry outside (if possible), fixing leaks and using lids when cooking. It is also important to identify and remove any mould in your living space, in order to prevent it from spreading. A selection of articles on indoor air quality and instructions for how to safely remove mould are listed below.

For more information:


pollution causes poor air quality

Air pollution is a significant health concern, especially for those living with existing lung conditions. This is a particular issue in urban areas, where the sources of pollutants are concentrated. Weather also influences levels of pollution, with stiller conditions often worsening the issue. It can therefore be useful to access pollution forecasts, so that high levels can be avoided, where possible.

Regularly-updated pollution forecasts for the UK and worldwide:


For further information on air quality:

ہائپر IgE سنڈروم اور aspergillosis کے ساتھ رہنا: مریض ویڈیو

مندرجہ ذیل مواد کو ERS سے دوبارہ پیش کیا گیا ہے


مذکورہ ویڈیو میں ، سینڈرا ہکس اپنے ابتدائی امیونوڈافیسیسی سنڈروم ، ہائپر IgE سنڈروم (HIES) کے ساتھ اپنے تجربے کا خلاصہ کرتی ہے ، اور اس نایاب جینیاتی حالت اور اس سے وابستہ پھیپھڑوں کے انفیکشن کے ساتھ زندگی بسر کرنے کا طریقہ اس کی زندگی کو کیسے متاثر کرتی ہے۔ HIES کا براہ راست نتیجہ اور مدافعتی جھرن پر اس کے اثر کے طور پر ، سینڈرا بیک وقت دائمی انتظام کرتی ہے Aspergillus انفیکشن (aspergillosis) ، غیر ماقبل مائکوبیکٹیریل انفیکشن (مائکوبیکٹیریم ایویم انٹراسیولولیر) ، برونکائکیٹیسیس کے ساتھ نوآبادیاتی سیوڈموناس اور دمہ وہ اس معمولی بیماری اور انفیکشن بوجھ سے اس کی روزمرہ کی زندگی پر پڑنے والے اثر پر تبادلہ خیال کرتی ہے ، جس میں درجہ حرارت ، نمی اور antimicrobial مزاحمت جیسے دوسرے عوامل کا اثر بھی شامل ہے۔

سینڈرا نے دوسرے لوگوں کے ساتھ ایسے ہی بیماریوں کے پروفائل والے علاج معالجین سے امیدوں کا اظہار کیا ، جس میں امیونوگلوبلین علاج کے اثرات بھی شامل ہیں۔ ابتدائی ، ابتدائی امیونوڈیفینیسیز اور فنگل انفیکشن کی درست تشخیص۔ اور اینٹی فنگلز اور دیگر دوائیوں کے مابین ممکنہ تعامل کی آگاہی (https://antifungalinteractions.org). وہ کثیر الثباتاتی ٹیموں کے اندر اور اس کے درمیان جامع ، بروقت مواصلات کی اہمیت پر بھی تبادلہ خیال کرتی ہے۔ آخر میں ، سینڈرا نے پھیپھڑوں کی دائمی حالت میں مبتلا افراد کے لئے صحت سے متعلق صحت سے متعلق پیشہ ور افراد کی مدد کی قدر پر زور دیا۔

سینڈرا اس کے بعد لوٹ آیا ہے پلمونری بحالی کلاسز یہ نہ صرف COPD کے شکار افراد بلکہ پھیپھڑوں کے دوسرے حالات میں رہنے والوں کے لئے بھی بہت فائدہ مند ہیں۔ اس خدمت کو وسیع پیمانے پر قابل رسائی بنانا پھیپھڑوں کے دائمی حالات کے انتظام کو بہتر بنائے گا اور یہاں تک کہ صحت سے متعلق اخراجات کو بھی کم کرسکتا ہے۔

سینڈرا ہکس مریض کی زیرقیادت گروپ ، اسپرگیلوس ٹرسٹ کی شریک بانی ہیں جس کا مقصد Aspergillosis کے بارے میں شعور اجاگر کرنا ہے۔ گروپ کی ویب سائٹ ملاحظہ کرنے اور ان کے کام کے بارے میں مزید معلومات کے لئے یہاں کلک کریں۔ 

سانچوں کے خطرات پر نیو یارک ٹائمز

جو لوگ ایسپرگلوسس کے ساتھ رہتے ہیں وہ سڑنا کی نمائش سے وابستہ خطرات کو بخوبی جانتے ہیں۔ تاہم ، انٹرنیٹ پر کبھی کبھی خوفناک کہانی سے حقیقت کو ترتیب دینا مشکل ہوسکتا ہے۔ گھر میں نم اور سڑنا ایک سنگین مسئلہ ہوسکتا ہے ، ان دونوں کے لئے جو پہلے سے موجود بیماریوں میں ہیں اور اس کے بغیر ہیں - لہذا ان خطرات کو سمجھنا اور سڑنا کی نشوونما کے کسی بھی وسیلے کی نشاندہی اور روک تھام کے لئے اقدامات کرنا بہت ضروری ہے۔ نیویارک ٹائمز نے ایک بہت ہی مفید مضمون لکھا ہے ، جس میں قومی Aspergillosis سنٹر کے پروفیسر ڈیوڈ ڈیننگ کا حوالہ دیتے ہوئے ، فنگس ہٹانے کے جر moldت مند گھروں اور صحت کی اہمیت ، اور مشکلات کے معلوم نتائج ہیں۔

مضمون یہاں پڑھیں:

سڑنا آپ کے خاندان کو بیمار کرسکتا ہے۔ اس سے چھٹکارا حاصل کرنے کا طریقہ یہ ہے۔

ان کے گھر میں سڑنا کے ساتھ رہنے والے خاندان کا کارٹون

مزید مشوروں کے لئے:

Corticosteroid use and COVID-19

Today (30th March 2020), we noticed a sharp increase in the number of visitors to a particular page of the Aspergillus Website.

The page is called ‘Medications that Weaken Your Immune System and Fungal Infections (CDC)’. We know that many people are worried and struggling to understand if and how their susceptibility to infection with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is changed by their existing medications.

It is worth noting that the article on the Aspergillus Website is written with specific reference to how medicines, such as corticosteroids and TNF (tumor necrosis factor) inhibitors, increase the risk of fungal infections. It is not written about bacterial or viral infections.

Many medications for asthma, which lots of people have in addition to allergic aspergillosis, contain corticosteroids that are inhaled. Currently, there is no evidence that people who use inhaled corticosteroids are at an increased risk of contracting COVID-19.

The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine in Oxford has published a useful article on this subject that points out that a COVID-19 infection in an asthmatic may trigger an asthma attack, and it is of greater benefit to the patient to prevent or control that attack than it would be to stop inhaled corticosteroids in an attempt to decrease the risk of  COVID-19 infection. There is even a hint that some types of asthma medication can inhibit coronavirus infection, but the evidence is not based on COVID-19.

Many of our more severe aspergillosis patients also take oral corticosteroids to try to control their breathlessness. During flare-ups, the dose can get quite high for a short time. Needless to say, it is critically important that these patients complete the increased dose as prescribed by their doctor. Patients on long term maintenance steroids must not reduce their dose as this will not offer additional protection against COVID-19. Maintaining good control of your condition is very important in reducing risk of complications. For patients on long term steroids shielding is also particularly important.

Overall, people with chronic (long-term) respiratory diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, bronchitis or CPA are considered at increased risk of severe illness from coronavirus (COVID-19) regardless of corticosteroid use. These people should closely follow the guidance on social distancing available from Public Heath England.

Rare Disease Day 2020 – 29th February

Rare Disease Day falls on the last day of February each year (with February 29th being a rare date itself!). The day is an opportunity for patients and advocacy groups to campaign and raise awareness about rare diseases, such as aspergillosis. 1 in 20 people will live with a rare disease at some point in their lifetime, yet there are still huge challenges faced by those who do. Common issues include delays to diagnosis and difficulties accessing treatment and care – these problems may sound all too familiar to many aspergillosis patients. Click here to find out more about Rare Disease Day, and how you can get involved!

What is Rare Disease Day?

Successes from Rare Disease Day 2019:

To share your story this year, click here to explore the ‘Rare Reality’ campaign website

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