Kukosha kwema microbiomes

MaMicrobiomes ese mamicroorganisms (mabhakitiriya, fungi, mavhairasi nezvimwewo) aripo mune imwe nzvimbo mumuviri. Izvi zvinowanikwa munzvimbo dzakadai sehura, mapapu nemuromo uye microbiomes munzvimbo dzakasiyana dzakagadzirwa nekugoverwa kwakasiyana kwemarudzi. Izvo zvinobatsira kumiviri yedu uye zvinopesvedzera zvinhu zvakasiyana siyana senge immune system yedu, hutano hwepfungwa uye hutano hwekufema. Mukati memunhu ane hutano hwakanaka, marudzi aya akasiyana-siyana aripo mukuenzanisa kwakagadziriswa kuita mabasa akasiyana-siyana uye kupa hutano hwakanaka - hunopa kudya kwatisingagoni kuzvigadzira isu pachedu. Kusaenzana (kunonzi dysbiosis) pakati pemhando dzezvipembenene zviripo zvinonyanya kubatanidzwa nechirwere.

Ona zvimwe nezve microbiomes pane ino peji - https://aspergillosis.org/the-host-its-microbiome-and-their-aspergillosis/?highlight=microbiomes

Iyo gut microbiome - hutano hwepfungwa & immune system

Iyo yakanyanya kunyatso dzidza microbiome ndeye ura. Muura munowanikwa matiriyoni zana (100 100 000 000 000!) mabhakitiriya emarudzi anosvika 000 akasiyana. Aya mabhakitiriya anogona kutaurirana nehuropi kuburikidza nechimwe chinhu chinodaidzwa kuti microbiota-gut-brain axis, inotsanangura nzira mbiri dzekudyidzana pakati pehuropi nemudumbu. Ura hunokwanisa kutumira mameseji kuuropi nenzira yemakemikari (anonzi neurotransmitters) anofamba netsinga uye nemuropa kuti asvike kuuropi uko ane maitiro akasiyana. Aya ma neurotransmitters anogadzirwa nemabhakitiriya anogara mukati mehutu.

Iyo gut microbiome inodzora kushushikana uye kusagadzikana mazinga uye ine simba rakasimba pamafungiro uye kushushikana. Izvi zvakaratidzwa kuburikidza nezvidzidzo zvakawanda. Semuenzaniso, zvidzidzo zvembeva zvakaratidza kuti avo vasina gut microbiome (inonzi germ-free mice) vane mhinduro yakasimba yekushushikana kana ichienzaniswa nembeva dzine gut microbiome.[1]. Sezvineiwo, iyi yakawedzera mhinduro yakaderedzwa mushure mekuwedzerwa kweanogara gut bhakitiriya anonzi Bifidobacterium. Mhuka iyi, pamwe chete neimwe mhando yakakosha inonzi Lactobacillus, yakaratidza kuderedza zvakanyanya kufunganya muvanhu[2]. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) inzira iyo tsvina inobva kune ane hutano inoiswa mumunhu anenge agamuchira kuti adzorere kuenzana kwebhakitiriya mumatumbo avo. FMT miedzo yakaitwa kubva kuvarwere vane hutano kune avo vane kuora mwoyo uye kuzvidya mwoyo-kufanana nezviratidzo uye zvakasiyana; mune zvese, varwere vanorwara vakashuma kuderedzwa kwezviratidzo mushure mekugamuchira kuisirwa uye varwere vane hutano vakashuma kuwedzera kwezviratidzo[3]. Pakupedzisira, serotonin ihomoni inoshanda muuropi kukonzera mafungiro akanaka uye anofadza. Iyi hormone inogadzirwa nemabhakitiriya emudumbu uye, kutaura zvazviri, inenge 90% ye serotonin yemuviri inogadzirwa nemabhakitiriya aya.[4]. Iyi ingori mienzaniso mishoma inoratidza mabatiro anoita mabhakitiriya emudumbu pahutano hwepfungwa.

Kuti uverenge zvakawanda nezve kukanganisa kweiyo gut microbiome pahutano hwepfungwa, tarisa chinyorwa ichi neBBC - https://bbc.in/3npHwet

immune system yedu (kureva iyo system inotibatsira kurwisa hutachiona) inobatwawo neiyo gut microbiome. Mabhakitiriya akasiyana emudumbu anokwanisa kumutsa masero edziviriro (T masero) kuita hunyanzvi hwerudzi rwesero inonzi T regulatory masero (kana Tregs). Tregs inodzvanya immune system uye nekudaro yakawedzera allergic reactions (eczema) inogona kukura kubva mukudzikira kwekuita kweaya maseru ekudzivirira. Mumatumbo, mamwe mabhakitiriya anokwanisa kushandura Tregs. Izvi zvinopa mukana wekupa idzi mhando kune varwere vane over-active allergic mhinduro kubatsira kurerutsa allergy uye kuzvimba. Iyi fungidziro iri kupa mhedzisiro yekutanga inokurudzira, semuenzaniso mu eczema, https://nationaleczema.org/topical-microbiome/. Onawo chikamu kumagumo pane probiotics.

Lung & gut microbiomes - allergy uye asthma

Iyo yakaderera mhepo inogara kune akasiyana huwandu hwehutachiona - hunodaidzwa kuti lung microbiome. Magadzirirwo eiyi microbiome akasiyana neaya emudumbu. Kune mabhakitiriya mashoma kwazvo aripo mumapapu zvichienzaniswa nemudumbu uye nharaunda iyi yakaoma kudzidza, kunyanya nekuti nzira dzekutora sampuli dzemapapu dzinopinda. Pakutanga zvaidavirwa kuti mapapu aive nharaunda isina hutachiona isina bhakitiriya uye mapapu microbiome haina kuwanikwa kusvika makore achangopfuura, saka, zvishoma zvinozivikanwa nezvehuwandu uhu zvichienzaniswa nehutumbu.

Zvinozivikanwa ndezvekuti mapapu microbiome anoita basa muhutano hwekufema uye kuderedzwa kwakasiyana kwemhando dzemicrobe kwakabatana nechirwere - nekuderera kwakawanda kwekusiyana kuri kubatanidzwa nechirwere chakanyanya. Zvakakosha, iyo mapapu microbiome yakabatana kune gut microbiome kuburikidza nemapapu-gut axis uye zvirwere zvekufema uye zvemudumbu zvinowanzovapo pamwechete. Iwo maviri akabatanidzwa kuburikidza neiyo immune system uye kutaurirana kunoitika, sekunge nemudumbu uye uropi, kuburikidza nemakemikari vatumwa. Izvi zvinoreva kuti shanduko mugut microbiome inoita kunge ine mhedzisiro pamhepo yemhepo allergic mhinduro uye asima zvakare. Tsvakurudzo dzinoverengeka dzakaratidza kuti varwere veasthmatic vane huwandu hwakashandurwa hwemhando mumapapu avo uye gut microbiomes zvichienzaniswa nemunhu asiri-asthmatic, uye kusaenzana uku kunofungidzirwa kuti kunobatsira kune hypersensitivity uye hyperreactivity ye immune system.

Imwe mhando yebhakitiriya inonzi Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis) yakaratidzwa mukuedza mbeva modhi (inoda kutevedzera asima) kudzora chiyero pakati pemhando yemhinduro yekudzivirira inogadzirwa nemuviri.[5]. Allergic inflammatory responses inogadzirwa neimwe nzira (inonzi nzira yeTh2) nepo mhinduro dzisiri dzealergic immune immune dzichigadzirwa neimwe nzira (Th1). Mhando yebhakitiriya iyi yakakosha nekuti inodzora kuenzana pakati penzira mbiri idzi kuona kuti hapana mhinduro inove yakakura. B. fragilis inovimba nekabhohaidhiretsi inonzi N-glycan uye N-glycan kugadzirwa kunoderedzwa kune varwere vane asima yakaoma[6]. Izvi zvinoita kuti zviomere B.fragilis kukura saka zvinowanzoitika kuti allergic (Th2) mhinduro inogona kutonga sezvo chiyero pakati penzira mbiri idzi chinowedzera kudzorwa. Uyu mumwe muenzaniso wekukosha kwehutachiona hwehutachiona muchirwere senge allergic asthma.

Dzvanya iyi link kuti uverenge zvakawanda nezve gut-lung yekubatanidza uye kukosha kwayo muCOVID-19 - https://bit.ly/3FooPOp

Ramangwana - probiotics, FMT uye tsvakurudzo

Maprobiotics anotsanangurwa se 'mararamiro tupukanana ayo kana akashandiswa muhuwandu hwakakwana anopa rubatsiro rwehutano kumugamuchiri (munhu)'. Iwo anouya nenzira dzakasiyana uye anotorwa kune akasiyana mabhenefiti ehutano, ane akasiyana ane akasiyana maumbirwo ebhakitiriya.

Probiotics yakadzidzwa mumakore achangopfuura kuti ishandiswe muvarwere vane asthmatic vane allergic sensitisation. Zvimwe zviedzo zvakaitwa kuyedza probiotics semushonga weasthma uye zvakaratidza kuve zvakabudirira. Semuenzaniso, kumwe kuongorora kwakapa probiotics kune 160 asthmatic vana vane makore 6-18 se capsules kwemwedzi ye3; zvigumisiro zvakaratidza kuti varwere vakanga vaderedza asthmatic severity, yakavandudza asthmatic control, yakawedzera peak expiratory flow rate uye yakaderera IgE (chiratidzo chekusagadzikana) mazinga.[7]. Zvikuru, zvidzidzo zvakawanda zvakaitwa pamusoro penyaya iyi zvanga zviri mumakonzo kana vana uye mhedzisiro yacho haienderane, saka tsvakiridzo yakawanda inodiwa munzvimbo iyi mishonga isati yakurudzirwa sekurapa.

FMT inogadziriswa inoshanda yekurapa Clostridium difficile utachiona, asi kuedza hakusati kwanyatsodzidza muzvirwere zveallergic. Parizvino pane kuenderera mberi kwekiriniki kuyedzwa kwemuromo wakavharirwa FMT mukurapa peanut allergy uye chikamu I chakapedzwa asi mhedzisiro haisati yaburitswa. Sezvo miedzo iyi inowedzera kuwanda, zvingangoita kuti inosvika kune allergic asthma uye pamwe kunyange allergic. Aspergillus -sensitisation. Zvakamira zvakadai, pane kumwe kuramba miedzo yakadai sekuti vamwe vanhu vanopikisa, kana kuti 'kuomeswa' nepfungwa yekutamisa marara kubva kune mumwe munhu kuenda kune mumwe. Nekudaro, muchokwadi, FMT haisi kuisirwa tsvina, asi yemicrobiota kubva mumatumbo. Pamusoro pezvo, haisi yese miedzo yeFMT yakave nemhedzisiro yakanaka - kuyedza muhematopoietic stem cell transplant varwere yakaratidza kuti yakauraya murume mumwe chete akagamuchira sampuli yevanopa iyo yakanga isati yavhenekwa rudzi rusingaite mushonga. E.coli [8]. FMT tsvagiridzo yeallergy ichiri mumatanho ekutanga uye kutsvagisa kwakawanda kunodiwa kuve nechokwadi chekuchengetedzwa kwayo, asi hapana kupokana ine mukana mukuru weramangwana.

Zvakadaro, kuchengetedza hutano hwakanaka hwehutachiona mumatumbo ako nemapapu microbiomes kwakakosha kune hutano hwemunhu wese uye kugara zvakanaka. Izvi zvinobatsirwa nekuva ne Kudya kwakanaka kune hutano hune fiber yakawanda uye kudya zvikafu zvine akawanda mabhakitiriya anobatsira senge yoghurt yechisikigo kana kefir. Kunyange zvazvo vasingambokurudzirwe sekurapa neNHS, ungangoda kufunga nezvazvo kutora probiotic. Nekudaro, iwe unofanirwa kuziva kuti maprobiotics anoonekwa seane chikafu chekuwedzera kupesana nemishonga uye saka kugadzirwa kwezvigadzirwa izvi hakuna kudzorwa, zvichireva kuti haugone kuve nechokwadi chekuti zvine mabhakitiriya anotaurwa pane iyo label. Izvo zvakakoshawo kuziva kuti maprobiotics anoshandiswa mumakiriniki ekuyedzwa angangove anoshanda kupfuura ayo anogona kutengwa pamusoro pekaunda sezvo angangove aine domo repamusoro uye mamwe marudzi.

Pane humbowo hwakanaka hwekuti kutora mushonga uchiri kushandisa mishonga inorwisa mabhakitiriya kunobatsira mukuderedza manyoka ane chekuita nemishonga, asi zvakare, uyu hausati wave mushonga unokurudzirwa. Mhando huru dzekutarisa ndedzipi Lactobacillus (L) rhamnosus. L. acidophilus uye L. casei. Uyewo, Bifidobacterium (B) lactis uye Saccharomyces (S) boulardii. Kuti maprobiotics aya ashande, muyero we10 bhiriyoni (10 ^ 10) cfu (bacteria) unodiwa. Kana chigadzirwa chikasataura chipimo chemushonga, zvingangoita kuti hachina mabhakitiriya akakwana kuita chero chinhu chakakosha. Uyezve, nzira yedosi inopfuura bhiriyoni gumi haina kubatsira uye inogona kukonzera hutano hwakaipa sekurwadziwa kwemudumbu. Ongororo yakaitwa muNetherlands yakanyora runyoro rwemishonga inokurudzirwa kubva kuvagadziri vakasiyana-siyana ekurapa manyoka panguva yekunwa mishonga inorwisa mabhakitiriya. Chidzidzo ichi hachina kuitwa kuUK saka haasi ese emaprobiotics aya anogona kuwanikwa pano asi zvakakodzera kuona. Ona runyorwa urwu pano. Ziva kuti mwero wenyeredzi-nhatu ndiwo wakanakisa, asi mwero wenyeredzi imwe uchiri kufanira kukurudzirwa.

Kupedzisa, isu tinoziva kuti mamicrobiomes akakosha zvakanyanya kune hutano hwedu, saka chengeta yako zvakanyanya sezvaunokwanisa.

Unoda kuziva chii chekudya kune hutano ura? Tevedza iyi link - https://bbc.in/31Rhfx1

 

[1] https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1113/jphysiol.2004.063388

[2] https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/assessment-of-psychotropiclike-properties-of-a-probiotic-formulation-lactobacillus-helveticus-r0052-and-bifidobacterium-longum-r0175-in-rats-and-human-subjects/2BD9977C6DB7EA40FC9FFA1933C024EA

[3] https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12888-020-02654-5

[4] https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8110878

[5] https://academic.oup.com/glycob/article/25/4/368/1988548

[6] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233880834_Transcriptome_analysis_reveals_upregulation_of_bitter_taste_receptors_in_severe_asthmatics

[7] Kushanda kweLactobacillus Administration muChikoro-Yezera Vana vane Asthma: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial - PubMed (nih.gov)

[8] https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1910437?query=featured_home

 

Yakagadziridzwa Kuwedzeredzwa muna Zvita 21, 2021 na Katy McGuinness